Panther Toad (Sclerophrys pantherina)

View the above photo record (by Michael McSweeney) in FrogMAP here.

Find the Panther Toad in the FBIS database (Freshwater Biodiversity Information System) here.

Family Bufonidae

PANTHER TOAD – Sclerophrys pantherina

(Smith, 1828)

Identification

B. pantherinus was formerly regarded as an allopatric population of B. pardalis, separated from the latter by a distance of more than 300 km. Poynton and Lambiris (1998) raised B. pantherinus to the status of a full species on the basis of colouration, markings and morphological differences between the two populations. Furthermore, Eick et al. (2001) found greater genetic divergence between B. pantherinus from the Western Cape and B. pardalis from the Eastern Cape than within either area, and agreed that B. pantherinus is specifically distinct from B. pardalis. However, Cunningham and Cherry (2000) found only 0.5% divergence between the populations and felt that this was insufficient to warrant full species status for the Western Cape population.

While the advertisement call of B. pardalis (in the Eastern Cape) has been described (Passmore 1977b), an adequate comparison of the calls of B. pardalis and B. pantherinus has not been published (Poynton and Lambiris 1998). Thus the taxonomic status of the two populations has not been fully resolved.

B. pantherinus attains a length of about 140 mm. The beautiful dorsal pattern of chocolate-brown patches on a bright yellow background, with a yellow vertebral stripe, distinguishes this species from the partially sympatric B. rangeri that has generally dull brown dorsal markings, and B. angusticeps that, in this area, has a greyish dorsal surface covered in dark brown blotches, and yellow colouring on the upper surfaces of its feet. The ventrum of B. pantherinus is granular and cream-coloured, with a darkish throat in males.

The advertisement call, a deep, pulsed snore that continues for about a second and is repeated every three to four seconds, easily distinguishes B. pantherinus from all other sympatric toad species.

Habitat

B. pantherinus is mainly associated with sandy coastal lowlands but, in places, can also be found in valleys and on the lower mountain slopes and hills near the coast. It is a wide-ranging species and, although it seems to spend most of its time away from water, this toad is always found in the general vicinity of wetland habitats such as rivers, coastal lakes, vleis and pans.

It inhabits the Fynbos and Thicket biomes where it is found in the following vegetation types: Mountain Fynbos, Laterite Fynbos, Limestone Fynbos, Sand Plain Fynbos and Dune Thicket. However, the species is not restricted to pristine natural habitats and is often found in modified habitats such as farmlands, urban open spaces and suburban gardens. Breeding has also been recorded in wetlands where some degree of pollution and eutrophication is evident.

This species generally breeds in permanent water bodies but also in seasonal wetlands that retain their water well into the summer months. Breeding habitat includes coastal lakes, vleis, pans, dams, ponds and sluggish, meandering rivers that have stretches of relatively deep, still water. Typical breeding sites have standing open water >50 cm deep, with scattered patches of aquatic plants and beds of emergent vegetation such as bulrushes Typha capensis.

Behaviour

B. pantherinus is an explosive breeder with a short, defined breeding season (Cherry 1992). Breeding usually takes place during August but has also been recorded at the end of July and in September. At the commencement of the breeding season, large numbers of adults appear and converge on selected breeding sites, hence the old popular name, “August frog”. For example, after dark on 23 July 1978, 66 adults were counted within c.20 min on a 3-km stretch of road near Noordhoek on the Cape Peninsula.

At prime breeding sites, advertisement calls of males can be heard in choruses of up to c.30 individuals, but in urban environments far fewer individuals are usually heard. Calling is most intense at night but is sometimes heard during the day. Males call from stands of emergent vegetation (e.g. bulrushes), but at night, areas of open water are also utilized. The males have a habit of calling from a floating position with limbs outstretched. Amplexing pairs tend to utilize areas of open water for spawning (Cherry 1992).

The females deposit thousands of eggs in gelatinous strings. On one occasion a pair was reported to have produced 24 476 eggs (Rose 1929). Metamorphosis is fairly slow, taking >10 weeks. The relatively small, dark, benthic tadpoles develop into tiny 11-mm long toadlets that leave the water in October–December in their thousands. Relatively few of the offspring develop into adults: most fall victim to a variety of predators (including their own kind) and other hazards.

Status and Conservation

Status: Endangered (EN) Criteria: B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(ii,iii,iv,v)

There appears to be no obvious decline in the extent of occurrence of B. pantherinus. However, urban development has resulted in permanent loss of habitat and the fragmentation of populations, especially on the Cape Peninsula and Cape Flats. In other areas, habitat degradation has affected habitat quality and led to a decline in population numbers.

Although this toad occurs in some of the protected nature areas within its range, these generally lack suitable breeding habitat. In fact, most of the protected areas in the southwestern Western Cape Province are located in montane areas, while probably >80% of B. pantherinus breeding habitat is situated lower down in unprotected areas. Zandvlei Nature Reserve (including the adjoining Westlake Wetland Conservation Area) is one protected area with good breeding habitat. Other statutory conservation areas that provide breeding habitat include Rondevlei and Zeekoevlei nature reserves and Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve (northern limits), but the quality of this habitat is unknown.

In the municipal areas of the Cape Peninsula and Cape Flats, B. pantherinus is known to breed in certain public open space and green-belt areas and is often encountered in surrounding gardens. These are important sanctuaries, but with increasing development, road traffic and associated threats, the survival of local populations could be threatened.

The recognition of the species status of B. pantherinus has resulted in its being classified Endangered (Harrison et al. 2001; this publication). This is based on an extent of occurrence <5000 km2, an area of occupancy <500 km2, a severely fragmented habitat, continuing decline in the extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, extent and quality of habitat and the number of locations/subpopulations and mature individuals. The species is legally protected by the Nature Conservation Ordinance 19 of 1974, but is not listed by CITES.

Distribution

B. pantherinus is endemic to the winter-rainfall region of the Western Cape. It has a restricted distribution range that spans a distance of about 140 km, from the Cape Peninsula (3318CD, 3418AB) in the west, eastward to beyond Gansbaai in the Pearly Beach area (3419DA). The species has a distinctly coastal distribution and is generally associated with low-lying areas within about 10 km of the sea. Its distribution correlates with large wetland areas, including rivers, and an annual rainfall of ≥600 mm.

The earliest distribution records of B. pantherinus were obtained from the Cape Peninsula and adjoining southwestern part of the Cape Flats (3318CD, 3418AB, BA). This area has also produced the most distribution records, including the following localities: Observatory, Valkenberg, Hout Bay, Noordhoek, Sun Valley, Fish Hoek, Clovelly, Kalk Bay, Kommetjie, Glencairn, the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve (northern limits), Scarborough, Constantia, Bergvliet, Tokai, Diep River, Kirstenhof, Lakeside, Rondevlei, Zeekoevlei, Southfield, Ottery, Philippi, Strandfontein and some neighbouring areas. Although Poynton (1964) recorded B. pantherinus occurring on the Cape Flats in grid cell 3318DC, no further records are known from this area. The mapping of this grid cell represents Poynton’s interpretation of South African Museum specimens from the “Cape Flats”. The species is more likely to have been recorded from the Cape Flats area immediately to the south, situated in grid cell 3418BA where there are known former and current localities.

In the coastal region to the southeast, B. pantherinus has been recorded from Pringle Bay and Betty’s Bay (3418BD), Kleinmond (3419AC), Hermanus and Stanford (3419AD), Gansbaai and Uilenkraalsmond (3419CB), and the Pearly Beach area (3419DA).

In summary, B. pantherinus has been recorded from eight quarter-degree grid cells. Since 1995, it has been found in six of these cells of which 3419CB represents a new record. There are no recent records for cells 3318CD and 3419AC.

Further Resources

Olive Toad (Sclerophrys garmani)

View the above photo record (by Felicity Grundlingh) in FrogMAP here.

Find the Olive Toad in the FBIS database (Freshwater Biodiversity Information System) here.

Family Bufonidae

OLIVE TOAD – Sclerophrys garmani

(Meek, 1897)

Habitat

This species inhabits various bushveld vegetation types in the Savanna Biome and seems to prefer well-wooded, low-lying areas with high daytime temperatures. During the day, individuals may be found under fallen logs, rocks and mats of vegetation, or beneath any object that provides shelter around houses. In northern Kruger National Park, specimens have been found in abandoned termitaria (H. Braack pers. obs.).

Breeding usually occurs in small, shallow, temporary water bodies, but occasionally the quiet backwaters of rivers and pools along small, slow-flowing streams are used (Lambiris 1989a). They also breed in artificial water bodies such as farm dams and ornamental ponds around homesteads. In the urban environment, S. garmani is less common than S. gutturalis.

Behaviour

Most breeding takes place during spring and summer, continuing into January and occasionally February. Breeding commences after the first substantial spring rains, or earlier if artificial water bodies such as garden ponds are available.

Males call from the edges of water bodies, often forming small choruses. They exhibit call-site fidelity, returning to the same site even when removed and released a considerable distance away (Pienaar et al. 1976). Amplexus is axillary, and displacement of amplexing males is frequent, with “knots” of several males and a single female forming at times (H. Braack pers. comm.). Eggs are laid in double strands containing up to 12 000–20 000 eggs (Channing 2001). The eggs hatch within 24 hours; metamorphosis takes place after 64 days (Du Preez 1996). Tadpoles assume a lighter or darker colouring to match the substrate (Channing 2001).

The eggs of S. garmani are eaten by the Serrated Hinged Terrapin Pelusios sinuatus, Müller’s Platanna Xenopus muelleri, and by their own tadpoles, while the adult frogs are taken by young crocodiles (Channing 2001). Other predators include various small carnivores, snakes and birds. Their prey includes beetles, termites, moths, insect larvae and other small invertebrates. After rain, when alate termites emerge, these toads congregate around the openings of termitaria where they gorge themselves on alates (Pienaar et al. 1976).

Status and Conservation

S. garmani is a common and widespread species and occurs in a number of national parks and provincial and private nature reserves. Much of its habitat is used for cattle and game ranching and is therefore not threatened. On the contrary, it is possible that the species has expanded its range as a result of the construction of artificial watering points for livestock.

Although the species is not under any immediate threat and is not a conservation priority, many of these toads are killed by motor vehicles as they cross roads at night during the breeding season (Pienaar et al. 1976). Many also suffer violent deaths at the hands of intolerant humans, irritated by their mating calls – a great pity as these vigorous calls are a quintessential feature of African bushveld nights. The fate of these and other frogs highlights the need for public education in the fascinating biology and ecological significance of frogs.

Distribution

S. garmani has a wide distribution in the eastern savannas of Africa, ranging from Somalia in the north to South Africa in the south (Poynton 1964; Channing 1991). In the atlas region, the species occurs in northern KwaZulu-Natal and extends to the northwest through the lowveld of Swaziland, Mpumalanga and Limpopo provinces, and westward along the Limpopo River valley.

Some confusion exists as to the western limit of the distribution of S. garmani, as it is difficult to distinguish this species from the morphologically similar S. poweri (see B. poweri species account). While the advertisement call of S. garmani has a relatively slower pulse rate and shorter duration than that of S. poweri (Channing 1991), this can be determined only by sonagraphic analysis. The majority of the atlas distribution records for these two species were not based on tape recordings and therefore the distribution data for S. garmani and S. poweri have been combined and are presented here in a single map. More intensive distribution surveys based on recorded calls and molecular analysis are required to elucidate the distributions of these species. In other respects the atlas data are reliable.

Further Resources

Virtual Museum (FrogMAP > Search VM > By Scientific or Common Name)

More common names: Eastern Olive Toad, Garman’s Toad (Alternative English Names); Olyfskurwepadda (Afrikaans)

Recommended citation format for this species text:

Turner A, Tippett RM.  Olive Toad Sclerophrys garmani. BDI, Cape Town.
Available online at http://thebdi.org/2022/01/15/olive-toad-sclerophrys-garmani/

Recommended citation format: 

This species text has been updated and expanded from the text in the
2004 frog atlas. The reference to the text and the book are as follows:

Turner A 2004 Sclerophrys garmani Olive Toad. In Minter LR
et al 2004.

Minter LR, Burger M, Harrison JA, Braack HH, Bishop PJ, Kloepfer D (eds)
2004. Atlas and Red Data Book of  the Frogs of South Africa, Lesotho and
Swaziland. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, and Avian Demography
Unit, Cape Town.

Raucous Toad (Sclerophrys capensis)

View the above photo record (by Cobus Elstadt) in FrogMAP here.

Find the Raucous Toad in the FBIS database (Freshwater Biodiversity Information System) here.

Family Bufonidae

RAUCOUS TOAD – Sclerophrys capensis

Tschudi, 1838

Habitat

Sclerophrys capensis inhabits mesic temperate areas of South Africa, Lesotho and Eswatini, a distribution that encompasses much of the Fynbos and Grassland biomes. It also occurs peripherally in the Succulent Karoo, Nama Karoo, Thicket, Forest and Savanna biomes. The species is absent from the sub-alpine grasslands of Lesotho, upper montane areas of the Western Cape, the Cape Peninsula, Saldanha Peninsula (3217DD) and Swartland (3318AD) in the southwest, and from the lowveld and drier parts of Limpopo, Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal provinces and Swaziland.

These toads are particularly abundant in the artificial grasslands of agricultural areas and are frequently encountered at breeding sites around farm dams, large ponds and pools along slow-flowing streams.

Behaviour

Non-breeding individuals roam widely and may be encountered crossing trails and roads throughout the year, especially on humid nights. The number of individuals encountered greatly increases around the breeding season as individuals migrate to breeding sites. Males usually call from exposed sites on floating vegetation, in shallow water near banks, or among reed beds.

There appears to be geographical variation in breeding patterns of Sclerophrys capensis. In the summer-rainfall eastern region of South Africa, this species calls from September, before S. gutturalis becomes active, and breeding choruses continue through to January. In the winter-rainfall southwest, S. capensis has a prolonged breeding season, commencing in early November and continuing until the last week in February (Cherry 1989).

In a study population near Stellenbosch, S. capensis maintained a strict female-choice mating system in which males competed by calling but did not actively search for mates or attempt to displace amplectant males. Instead, females visited several males before choosing a partner (Cherry 1993). This mating system may be density dependent (M. Cherry pers. comm.) and observations of attempted amplexus displacement at Klawer (3118DC) and among captive individuals from Weza (3029DB, pers. obs.) suggest that mating systems may vary among populations.

As in most toads, eggs are laid in spiraling strings and often become entangled in aquatic vegetation. A clutch of eggs laid by a captive female from Stellenbosch contained 10 760 eggs (M. Cunningham and C.L. Henderson unpubl. data).

Like other Sclerophrys species, S. capensis shows some fidelity to breeding sites within seasons, but breeding-site shifts of up to 5 km have been recorded across two breeding seasons (unpubl. data), and in a three-year ecological study of this long-lived species, few marked individuals were recaptured in subsequent years (Cherry 1993). The population ecology of S. capensis would be a good topic for further research.

Status and Conservation

S. capensis occurs in a number of conservation areas, including Cederberg Wilderness Area (3219AC), Golden Gate Highlands (2828DA) and Royal Natal national parks (2828DB), and Malolotja Nature Reserve (2631AA) in Swaziland. Although the species is secure in most places, populations along the northeastern escarpment appear to be declining. Further efforts are needed to determine the causes of this decline and to protect these populations of a unique and possibly threatened lineage restricted to Mpumalanga and Limpopo provinces and Swaziland.

Distribution

Sclerophrys capensis is endemic to the atlas region. Its range includes all provinces of South Africa as well as Lesotho and Swaziland. In the arid Northern Cape and North West provinces, it is restricted to the vicinity of the Vaal and Gariep rivers that form corridors, allowing the species to reach Vioolsdrif (2817DC) and Alexander Bay (2816CB) in the west. The species occurs in sub-coastal areas, extending from the Olifants River mouth (3118CA) in the west, along the coast to the vicinity of Durban (2931CC). Around Paterson (3325BD), its range extends inland onto the highveld grassland of Lesotho and Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Free State, Gauteng and Mpumalanga provinces. North of latitude 29°S, this toad is usually restricted to altitudes >1000 m, and in the extreme north it occurs in a discontinuous series of highland patches following the northeastern escarpment from Malolotja Nature Reserve (2631AA) in western Swaziland, through Mpumalanga, to the Soutpansberg range of Limpopo Province.

S. capensis comprises three historically isolated genetic lineages identified from mitochondrial DNA sequences (pers. obs.). One of these lineages is widespread and extends from the Free State and KwaZulu-Natal southwest to Stellenbosch (3318DD), including the type locality at Glennifer (3227DA) near Kei Road. A second lineage is restricted to the west coast and intergrades with the widespread southern lineage in the upper Berg River valley near Franschoek (3319CC). Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity suggests an historically large and stable population within the southern lineage, whereas the western lineage appears to have been historically restricted in distribution and to have undergone range expansion, probably with climatic changes over the past 20 000 years. A third independent genetic lineage is restricted to fragmented populations along the northeastern escarpment of Swaziland and Mpumalanga. The status of populations in Gauteng and Limpopo provinces, and the boundary between the southern and northeastern lineages, are currently unresolved.

The range of S. capensis to be contracting in the north and east of South Africa, in Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Gauteng and coastal KwaZulu-Natal provinces (new atlas data). This apparent range contraction seems to complement the range expansion of Sclerophrys gutturalis and it is possible that these are linked, that is, S. gutturalis displaces S. capensis and/or habitat modification affects these species differently.

S. capensis hybridizes with S. gutturalis at sites scattered throughout eastern South Africa (see S. gutturalis account). These are not closely related species (pers. obs.), and it seems that hybridization rarely progresses beyond the first generation (Carruthers 2001; pers. obs.). There are also numerous sites where these species co-occur with little or no hybridization. S. gutturalis tends to be much more abundant than S. capensis at joint breeding sites. Behavioural theory predicts that females of the less common species are more likely to mate with other species, but in this case, most hybrid pairings occur between female S. gutturalis and male S. capensis (pers. obs.).

Several authors have suggested that hybridization between S. capensis and S. gutturalis is an historically recent phenomenon and that the creation of artificial breeding sites, such as farm dams, has broken down natural separation based on breeding habitat (Carruthers 2001). S. gutturalis readily colonizes farm dams and reaches high abundance, so it is possible that modern peri-urban and agricultural development has extended the potential distribution of this species at the expense of S. capensis. However, the two species also co-occur and hybridize in natural situations, such as around slow flowing streams or stream-side pools, for example, along a stream in the Silaka Nature Reserve (3129DA), and it is likely that agricultural development has been accompanied by a reduction in stream-side wallows created by large mammals such as buffalo. Thus it seems likely that some level of hybridization occurred prior to the past hundred years of agricultural modification. The apparent complementary range shifts in the two species may also partly reflect the different responses of a tropical savanna species and a mesic temperate species to subtle changes in climate, rather than competitive exclusion.

This species has an easily recognizable call. The atlas data are reliable and fairly comprehensive.

Further Resources

Virtual Museum (FrogMAP > Search VM > By Scientific or Common Name)

More common names: Ranger’s Toad (Alternative English Name; Lawaaiskurwepadda (Afrikaans)

Recommended citation format for this species text:

Cunningham M, Tippett RM.  Raucous Toad Sclerophrys capensis. BDI, Cape Town.
Available online at http://thebdi.org/2022/01/15/raucous-toad-sclerophrys-capensis/

Recommended citation format: 

This species text has been updated and expanded from the text in the
2004 frog atlas. The reference to the text and the book are as follows:

Cunningham M 2004 Sclerophrys capensis Raucous Toad. In Minter LR
et al 2004.

Minter LR, Burger M, Harrison JA, Braack HH, Bishop PJ, Kloepfer D (eds)
2004. Atlas and Red Data Book of  the Frogs of South Africa, Lesotho and
Swaziland. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, and Avian Demography
Unit, Cape Town.

Bilbo’s Rain Frog (Breviceps bagginsi)

View the above photo record (by G Aiston) in FrogMAP here.

Find the Bilbo’s Rain Frog in the FBIS database (Freshwater Biodiversity Information System) here.

Family Breviceptidae

BILBO’S RAIN FROG – Breviceps bagginsi

Minter, 2003

Identification

B. bagginsi is a relatively small species: males are 20–25.9 mm (N = 19) in body length, and the single paratype female measured 28.7 mm. The call is a sharp, high-pitched trill of moderate length (emphasized frequency 2540–3042 Hz; duration 103–388 ms; N = 15). Each bout of calling consists of 7–19 closely spaced calls (Minter 2003).

The call of B. bagginsi is easily distinguished from the long, high-pitched whistle of B. sopranus, the very short, high-pitched chirp of B. mossambicus and the lower-pitched calls of B. adspersus which tend to be emitted in groups within the call bout (Minter 1995, 1997, 2003).

B. verrucosus, which also occurs in the Boston area, is larger than B. bagginsi and has a granular skin with two or more longitudinal, glandular ridges on the dorsum. The call of B. verrucosus is lower in pitch and longer than that of B. bagginsi (emphasized frequency 1550–2238 Hz; duration 421–912 ms; n = 34; Minter 2003).

Other Breviceps species that may occur in sympatry with B. bagginsi are B. sopranusB. adspersus and B. mossambicus. Colour and markings are highly variable in these species and cannot be used to distinguish them from one another or from B. bagginsi. Identification should be based on their characteristic advertisement calls.

Habitat

B. bagginsi inhabits the grassy verges of roads in heavily afforested areas at altitudes of 900–1400 m. The vegetation at these localities, prior to afforestation, probably comprised Short Mistbelt Grassland or Moist Upland Grassland. At present, no populations are known from undisturbed habitat.

Behaviour

Very little is known of the life history of this species. Breeding takes place in spring and early summer. Males call from the surface or from shallow depressions concealed beneath vegetation. In wet weather, calling continues throughout the day and males will continue to call from well-concealed sites in full sunlight at ambient temperatures as high as 28°C. Amplexus and oviposition have not been observed.

During the emergence of termite alates, individuals leave their places of concealment to feed in the open.

Status and Conservation

Status

B. bagginsi is a recently described species (Minter 2003). It is assigned to the Data Deficient category (this publication). The species is not known to occur in any protected area.

Threats

Habitat loss due to afforestation obviously represents a serious threat to this species as it is known only from narrow, grassy roadside verges in areas where natural grassland has been replaced by plantations of eucalypts and pines. The fire regimes to which these grassy strips are subjected, as part of the management of the plantations, may in the medium to long term affect the viability of these frog populations. Road kills also constitute a serious threat, as all the known breeding sites lie alongside roads. The frogs cross the roads during the breeding season and are especially vulnerable when they swarm onto the roads during the emergence of alate termites.

Recommended conservation actions

Distribution, life history and ecological data are urgently needed to assess the conservation status of B. bagginsi and develop an appropriate conservation plan.

Distribution

B. bagginsi is endemic to KwaZulu-Natal and is recorded from only four quarter-degree grid cells: three between Babanango, Melmoth and Ulundi (2831AD, CA, CB), and one between Boston and Howick (2930CA). The atlas data are accurate but incomplete. A more intensive survey of suitable habitats may reveal additional populations.

Further Resources

Virtual Museum (FrogMAP > Search VM > By Scientific or Common Name)

More common names: Bilbo se Blaasoppadda (Afrikaans)

Recommended citation format for this species text:

Minter LR, Tippett RM.  Bilbo’s Rain Frog Breviceps bagginsi. BDI, Cape Town.
Available online at http://thebdi.org/2022/01/11/bilbos-rain-frog-breviceps-bagginsi/

Recommended citation format: 

This species text has been updated and expanded from the text in the
2004 frog atlas. The reference to the text and the book are as follows:

Minter LR 2004 Breviceps bagginsi Bilbo’s Rain Frog. In Minter LR
et al 2004.

Minter LR, Burger M, Harrison JA, Braack HH, Bishop PJ, Kloepfer D (eds)
2004. Atlas and Red Data Book of  the Frogs of South Africa, Lesotho and
Swaziland. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, and Avian Demography
Unit, Cape Town.

Brown-backed Tree Frog (Leptopelis mossambicus)

View the above photo record (by Ryan Tippett) in FrogMAP here.

Find the Brown-backed Tree Frog in the FBIS database (Freshwater Biodiversity Information System) here.

Family Heleophrynidae

BROWN-BACKED TREE FROG – Leptopelis mossambicus

Poynton, 1985

Habitat

In the atlas region, this species inhabits a variety of bushveld vegetation types in the Savanna Biome, as well as Sand Forest and mangrove swamps. It seems to prefer moist, wooded, low-lying areas where it lays its eggs under leaf litter next to shallow pans, pools and streams. It has been recorded from relatively high altitudes in southern Malawi to sea level along the KwaZulu-Natal coast.

Behaviour

L. mossambicus retreats underground during the day and during the dry winter months. Wager (1965) noted that captive individuals spent the dry season (5–6 months) buried in the soil at a depth of 25 cm below the surface.

Breeding begins after the first heavy summer rains in November, and continues through January. Males call from elevated positions on grass, reeds, sedges, shrubs and trees, usually no more than 1.5 m above the ground. These call sites are normally near open water, but may be several hundred metres distant. The males are territorial and produce aggressive calls when other males are in close proximity. If the intruder does not move away, protracted fighting may occur (Passmore and Carruthers 1995).

The eggs are laid in a shallow burrow under leaf litter near the water’s edge (L.R.M. pers. obs.). The tadpoles complete part of their development in the nest, and may remain in a state of arrested development for several weeks until the next heavy downpour. When the egg capsules are moistened by rain, the tadpoles immediately break out and wriggle en masse to the water, where they complete their development (L.R.M. pers. obs.).

In captivity, L. mossambicus eat beetles, termites, moths and their larvae, and a record exists of a captive individual eating a baby chameleon (Wager 1986).

Status and Conservation

Within its distribution range, L. mossambicus is fairly widespread and is known to occur in numerous public and private protected areas. Populations appear to be stable. There are no known threats to this species at present. The continued protection of the habitat of this species in protected areas should be sufficient to ensure its long-term survival.

Distribution

L. mossambicus is distributed from southern Malawi through southeastern Zimbabwe to central and southern Mozambique (Poynton and Broadley 1987; Lambiris 1989a). In the atlas region, it occurs in the low-lying eastern parts of Limpopo Province, eastern Mpumalanga, Swaziland and northern KwaZulu-Natal. The southernmost record collected during the atlas survey at Everton (2930DD), and the historical record from Wentworth, Durban (2931CC), are disjunct from the main distribution further to the north. This break in distribution may reflect inadequate sampling.

The colour, markings and call of L. mossambicus are distinctive, and it cannot be mistaken for any other frog species in the atlas region. The atlas data are reliable and reasonably complete.

Further Resources

Virtual Museum (FrogMAP > Search VM > By Scientific or Common Name)

More common names: Bruinrug-boompadda (Afrikaans)

Recommended citation format for this species text:

Theron J, Minter LR, Tippett RM.  Brown-backed Tree Frog Leptopelis mossambicus. BDI, Cape Town.
Available online at http://thebdi.org/2022/01/11/brown-backed-tree-frog-leptopelis-mossambicus/

Recommended citation format: 

This species text has been updated and expanded from the text in the
2004 frog atlas. The reference to the text and the book are as follows:

Theron J, Minter LR 2004 Leptopelis mossambicus Brown-backed Tree Frog. In Minter LR
et al 2004.

Minter LR, Burger M, Harrison JA, Braack HH, Bishop PJ, Kloepfer D (eds)
2004. Atlas and Red Data Book of  the Frogs of South Africa, Lesotho and
Swaziland. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, and Avian Demography
Unit, Cape Town.

Shovel-footed Squeaker (Arthroleptis stenodactylus)

View the above photo record (by Len de Beer) in FrogMAP here.

Find the Shovel-footed Squeaker in the FBIS database (Freshwater Biodiversity Information System) here.

Family Arthroleptidae

SHOVEL-FOOTED SQUEAKER – Arthroleptis stenodactylus

Pfeffer, 1893

Habitat

In the atlas region, this species occurs in wooded areas with abundant leaf litter and sandy soils. Along the coast it inhabits Dune Forest and forest patches in Coastal Bushveld/Grassland, while in the northern Kruger National Park it was found in the leaf litter of riverine woodland (H.H. Braack pers. comm.). Breeding takes place in the same habitat.

Behaviour

Breeding occurs December–February (Stewart 1967). Males call from the ground amongst leaf litter. The eggs are laid in hollows or shallow burrows in leaf litter beneath bushes or around the roots of trees. Clutch size is 33–80 eggs which develop directly into small froglets (Barbour and Loveridge 1928; Loveridge 1953a).

During the dry season, the adults take shelter in hollow trees, moss, rotten wood, and soil at the base of trees (Loveridge 1953b,c).

Their diet includes termites, ants and a wide range of other small arthropods; more unusual items include snails and frogs (Barbour and Loveridge 1928; Inger and Marx 1961). They are fed upon by various snakes, including Eastern Vine Snake Thelotornis mossambicanus, White-lipped Snake Crotaphopeltis tornieri, Eastern Stripe-bellied Sand Snake Psammophis orientalis and Green Water Snake Philothamnus hoplogaster (Barbour and Loveridge 1928; Loveridge 1953a; Blake 1965).

Status and Conservation

This species is widespread and common and does not require specific conservation action.

Distribution

A. stenodactylus is a widespread species that extends from southern and eastern DRC to Kenya, south to Zimbabwe and Mozambique. In the atlas region it has a peripheral distribution, occurring along the coastal plain north of Empangeni (2831DD), and in the Limpopo River valley in the extreme north of Limpopo Province. This species is easily recognized by its call. The atlas data are reliable.

Further Resources

Virtual Museum (FrogMAP > Search VM > By Scientific or Common Name)

More common names: Dune Squeaker (Alternative English Name); Graafpootkikker (Afrikaans)

Recommended citation format for this species text:

Channing A, Tippett RM.  Shovel-footed Squeaker Arthroleptis stenodactylus. BDI, Cape Town.
Available online at http://thebdi.org/2022/01/10/shovel-footed-squeaker-arthroleptis-stenodactylus/

Recommended citation format: 

This species text has been updated and expanded from the text in the
2004 frog atlas. The reference to the text and the book are as follows:

Channing A 2004 Arthroleptis stenodactylus Shovel-footed Squeaker. In Minter LR
et al 2004.

Minter LR, Burger M, Harrison JA, Braack HH, Bishop PJ, Kloepfer D (eds)
2004. Atlas and Red Data Book of  the Frogs of South Africa, Lesotho and
Swaziland. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, and Avian Demography
Unit, Cape Town.

Bubbling Kassina (Kassina senegalensis)

View the above photo record (by Johan Heyns) in FrogMAP here.

Find the Bubbling Kassina in the FBIS database (Freshwater Biodiversity Information System) here.

Family Hyperoliidae

BUBBLING KASSINA – Kassina senegalensis

(Duméril and Bibron, 1841)

Habitat

K. senegalensis inhabits a wide variety of vegetation types in the Savanna and Grassland biomes (Poynton 1964; Balinsky 1969; Passmore and Carruthers 1995). Breeding habitat comprises both temporary and permanent water bodies, including well-vegetated shallow pans, vleis and marshes, as well as deeper dams (Rödel 2000).

Behaviour

During the dry season, K. senegalensis aestivates under logs and rocks and inside termitaria and burrows of the Giant Girdled Lizard Cordylus giganteus. Individuals were found as far as 1200 m from an ephemeral pan, at the end of the breeding season when the frogs moved away from the water to seek shelter for the winter (Kok et al. 1997).

Breeding takes place from spring to late summer. During the day, adults hide under vegetation or rocks, or in burrows, emerging in the late afternoon to make their way to the breeding site. They begin to call at dusk while some distance from the water, before taking up positions near the water’s edge, well concealed beneath vegetation (Fleischack and Small 1978; Rödel 2000). In wet weather, calling takes place during the day as well as at night. The vocal repertoire includes an advertisement call as well as a longer, pulsed, territorial call (Fleischack and Small 1978).

Amplexus is usually initiated out of the water. Between 100 and 500 eggs are laid singly in shallow water; they are adhesive and may stick to submerged vegetation, rocks or other objects, or sink to the bottom. One amplexed pair dispersed their eggs over a distance of 3 m, depositing 1–15 eggs at a number of sites c.30 cm apart (Fleischack and Small 1978). The eggs are 1.4–1.8 mm in diameter, in 3-mm jelly capsules, and they hatch within 5–6 days. The tadpoles develop slowly and complete their development in 52–90 days (Wager 1965; Balinsky 1969). Rödel (2000) presented a detailed description of the life history of K. senegalensis and a comprehensive review of pertinent literature.

K. senegalensis preys on a variety of arthropods, including termites, caterpillars, ants, flies and spiders (Loveridge 1936; Inger and Marx 1961). The species has been observed to fall prey to the Herald Snake Crotaphopeltis hotamboeia while approaching breeding sites. (C.W. and L.H. du P. pers. obs.).

Status and Conservation

This widely distributed and abundant species does not require conservation attention. The large number of farm dams that have been built in South Africa have created additional breeding habitat for this species. K. senegalensis is recommended as a research subject because of its wide distribution, abundance, and the ease with which it may be kept in captivity (Van Wyk et al. 1992).

Distribution

K. senegalensis is one of the region’s most widely distributed frog species, occurring throughout almost all of sub-Saharan Africa. It is found in suitable habitats at low and high altitudes, from Senegal in West Africa, eastward to Somalia and southward to South Africa. In the atlas region, this species is common in all provinces except Western Cape Province (apart from one record), the western part of Eastern Cape Province and the central and western parts of Northern Cape Province. It occurs throughout Swaziland, and its apparently sparse distribution in lowland Lesotho reflects inadequate sampling rather than a real absence of the species. It is certainly one of the most common species in the atlas region, within the limits of its range.

The data set is reliable and fairly comprehensive, especially as the characteristic call, an explosive, short “boip”, reveals the presence of the species from great distances and clearly distinguishes it from all other species.

Further Resources

Virtual Museum (FrogMAP > Search VM > By Scientific or Common Name)

More common names: Borrelvleipadda (Afrikaans)

Recommended citation format for this species text:

Weldon C, du Preez LH, Tippett RM.  Bubbling Kassina Kassina senegalensis. BDI, Cape Town.
Available online at http://thebdi.org/2022/01/07/bubbling-kassina-kassina-senegalensis/

Recommended citation format: 

This species text has been updated and expanded from the text in the
2004 frog atlas. The reference to the text and the book are as follows:

Weldon C, du Preez LH 2004 Kassina senegalensis Bubbling Kassina. In Minter LR
et al 2004.

Minter LR, Burger M, Harrison JA, Braack HH, Bishop PJ, Kloepfer D (eds)
2004. Atlas and Red Data Book of  the Frogs of South Africa, Lesotho and
Swaziland. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, and Avian Demography
Unit, Cape Town.

Broad-banded Grass Frog (Ptychadena mossambica)

View the above photo record (by Toby Esplin) in FrogMAP here.

Find the Broad-banded Grass Frog in the FBIS database (Freshwater Biodiversity Information System) here.

Family Ptychadenidae

BROAD-BANDED GRASS FROG – Ptychadena mossambica

(Peters, 1854)

Habitat

This savanna species inhabits several bushveld vegetation types in the northeastern parts of the atlas region, at altitudes of 200–1200 m. (Jacobsen 1989). Annual rainfall in these habitats is 350–>1000 mm. P. mossambica and P. anchietae are both savanna species and often occupy the same breeding sites. However, Poynton and Broadley (1985b) cited a record of P. mossambica collected in evergreen forest in Mozambique, while Loveridge (1953a) collected specimens in open grassland, indicating that this species has adapted to a wider range of habitats than P. anchietae.

During summer, adults conceal themselves in grass tussocks near vleis, seepage areas, pans and dams (Jacobsen 1989), floodplains of rivers and inundated grassland (Passmore and Carruthers 1995). When disturbed, they take one long leap into grass, crawl under it, and remain concealed (Stewart 1967).

Behaviour

Comparatively little is known about the life history of P. mossambica. During dry winter months the frogs seek refuge in deep cracks in the dry mud of pans and dams (Pienaar et al. 1976), emerging to breed after the first spring rains.

In flooded grassland or shallow, grassy pans, males call from completely concealed positions within grass tussocks, usually some distance from the shoreline. At breeding sites, where clumps of emergent vegetation are absent, calling takes place from dense vegetation at the water’s edge (Passmore 1978). In more arid areas, such as Hans Merensky Nature Reserve, breeding begins before vegetation has developed around the seasonal pans and dams, and P. mossambica calls from completely exposed positions, alongside P. anchietae (L.R.M. pers. obs). Calling peaks between 20:00 and midnight (Passmore 1978).

Pienaar et al. (1976) recorded a batch of 315 eggs that were laid in shallow water and developed rapidly. They were grey-brown on one side, yellow-white on the other and sank to the bottom when laid.

Diet has not been recorded, but is probably similar to that of P. anchietae.

Status and Conservation

In terms of its global distribution, P. mossambica has a marginal distribution in the atlas region; within this area it is relatively common and does not appear to be at risk. Much of its habitat is used for game and cattle farming and is relatively undisturbed, and it also occurs in a number of provincial nature reserves and national parks.

Distribution

P. mossambica occurs in open savanna from Kenya and Uganda southward through East Africa to Namibia (Caprivi), Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique (Poynton and Broadley 1985b; Channing 2001). In the atlas region it occurs in the northeastern parts of North West Province, Limpopo Province, eastern Mpumalanga, eastern Swaziland and northern KwaZulu-Natal. Its recorded range extends west as far as Gopane (2525BD), and southward to Mtunzini (2831DD). This is a highly variable taxon which requires further taxonomic investigation (Poynton and Broadley 1985b; Channing 2001).

P. mossambica has a loud and distinctive call and breeds over an extended period. The atlas data are reasonably complete and reliable, although the species is probably more widespread in Limpopo Province than is indicated by the map.

Further Resources

Virtual Museum (FrogMAP > Search VM > By Scientific or Common Name)

More common names: Breëband-graspadda (Afrikaans)

Recommended citation format for this species text:

Minter LR, Passmore NI, Tippett RM.  Broad-banded Grass Frog Ptychadena mossambica. BDI, Cape Town.
Available online at http://thebdi.org/2022/01/07/broad-banded-grass-frog-ptychadena-mossambica/

Recommended citation format: 

This species text has been updated and expanded from the text in the
2004 frog atlas. The reference to the text and the book are as follows:

Minter LR, Passmore NI 2004 Ptychadena mossambica Broad-banded Grass Frog. In Minter LR et al 2004.

Minter LR, Burger M, Harrison JA, Braack HH, Bishop PJ, Kloepfer D (eds)
2004. Atlas and Red Data Book of  the Frogs of South Africa, Lesotho and
Swaziland. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, and Avian Demography
Unit, Cape Town.

Dwarf Grass Frog (Ptychadena taenioscelis)

View the above photo record (by Walter Neser) in FrogMAP here.

Find the Dwarf Grass Frog in the FBIS database (Freshwater Biodiversity Information System) here.

Family Ptychadenidae

DWARF GRASS FROG – Ptychadena taenioscelis

Laurent, 1954

Habitat

In the northern parts of its range, P. taenioscelis inhabits river-valley savanna (moist woodlands) and open grasslands at medium elevations (Stewart 1967; Poynton and Broadley 1985b). In the atlas region it occupies Coastal Bushveld-Grassland, a mosaic of vegetation types containing lowland swamps, forest patches and patches of secondary woodland in a grassy matrix (Passmore 1978).

Behaviour

Nothing is known of the life history of P. taenioscelis outside of the breeding season. Dense breeding aggregations develop in summer, in shallow, boggy areas of vleis, seepages and inundated grassland (Passmore and Carruthers 1995). Like P. porosissima, this species continues to call during dry periods, though less intensely (Passmore 1978). During the day, adults remain close to the breeding site (Passmore 1978).

Calling begins early in the afternoon, and is characterized by frequent physical interactions between males as they establish a suitable spacing (0.4–1.5 m apart). Calling peaks between 18:30 and 21:00, and ends 3–4 hours after dark. Males call from exposed positions in wet mud or shallow water at the margin of the breeding site, sometimes submerged to the level of the axillae (Passmore 1976, 1978).

Eggs are laid and fertilized in the same way as described for P. oxyrhynchus. They are released two or three at a time, in water 5–10 mm in depth. Eggs sink slowly and accumulate debris on the jelly capsule (Passmore 1978).

Adults feed on a variety of terrestrial arthropods, primarily beetles, bugs, wasps and spiders (Passmore 1978).

Status and Conservation

P. taenioscelis has a peripheral and patchy distribution in the atlas region and few data are available to assess its conservation status. Despite its tendency to form large breeding aggregations, it was never encountered during the seven-year period of the atlas survey; therefore, from a national perspective, the species may be threatened. Population surveys and monitoring in protected areas are strongly recommended. If P. taenioscelis has indeed declined within the atlas region, it is important to try to identify the contributing factors as these may also be affecting endemic species.

Distribution

P. taenioscelis is distributed from Angola, northern Namibia (Caprivi), southeastern Zaire and Tanzania, southward through northern Botswana and Zambia to northern Mozambique. Within this range the distribution is reported to be patchy (Poynton 1964; Stewart 1967; Passmore 1976; Poynton and Broadley 1985b; Rödel 2000; Channing 2001). The taxonomic relationship between P. taenioscelis and the West African P. pumilio has been the subject of some debate in the literature (Perret 1979; Poynton and Broadley 1985b; Passmore and Carruthers 1995; Channing 2001). Advertisement calls recorded in Cameroon appear to be those of P. taenioscelis (N.I.P. unpubl. data), which suggests that this species has a wider distribution than described above.

In the atlas region the species has a peripheral distribution comprising a few scattered populations along the coastal plain of northern KwaZulu-Natal. It has been recorded as far south as Richards Bay (2832CC). Channing (2001) recorded this species in Limpopo Province and North West Province, but no records were obtained from these areas during the extensive survey carried out by Jacobsen (1989), nor during the atlas survey.

The populations entering the atlas region were assigned to a new species, P. smithi, by Guibé (1960), but were later placed in the synonymy of P. taenioscelis by Poynton (1964). Thus, although P. taenioscelis has not yet been collected in southern Mozambique, the Zululand populations are currently regarded as representing the southern periphery of this species.

The atlas map is based entirely on pre-1996 records; this is probably the result of inadequate sampling as well as a relative scarcity of breeding sites.

Further Resources

Virtual Museum (FrogMAP > Search VM > By Scientific or Common Name)

More common names: Kleingraspadda (Afrikaans)

Recommended citation format for this species text:

Minter LR, Passmore NI, Tippett RM.  Dwarf Grass Frog Ptychadena taenioscelis. BDI, Cape Town.
Available online at http://thebdi.org/2022/01/07/dwarf-grass-frog-ptychadena-taenioscelis/

Recommended citation format: 

This species text has been updated and expanded from the text in the
2004 frog atlas. The reference to the text and the book are as follows:

Minter LR, Passmore NI 2004 Ptychadena taenioscelis Dwarf Grass Frog. In Minter LR
et al 2004.

Minter LR, Burger M, Harrison JA, Braack HH, Bishop PJ, Kloepfer D (eds)
2004. Atlas and Red Data Book of  the Frogs of South Africa, Lesotho and
Swaziland. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, and Avian Demography
Unit, Cape Town.

PHunting Round Three – December 2021

The Festive Season is upon us, or is it the Silly Season? All around there is a mad dash in the shops, the queues are long, the smell of fresh hot-cross buns strong. To escape the madness, or perhaps some family members, some individuals have turned to biomapping. Time spent in nature is never wasted and all the more so if you can contribute to biodiversity conservation!

Round Three of Photo Hunting (i.e. PHunting) kicked off on Saturday 11 December 2021 and ran until midnight on Sunday 19 December 2021. Biomappers snapped and mapped the amazing total of 3,979 records! Below is a table summarizing the number of records received, by project, in the Virtual Museum for PHunting Round Three. The table is organized by most to least amount of records received.

VM ProjectRecord Totals
BirdPix1884
OdonataMAP862
LepiMAP723
TreeMAP112
ReptileMAP104
MammalMAP67
FrogMAP56
MushroomMAP55
SpiderMAP51
PHOWN22
OrchidMAP18
ScorpionMAP9
LacewingMAP7
FishMAP4
DungBeetleMAP3
BOP1
EchinoMAP1

12 Observers submitted more than 100 records on African biodiversity. The Top 15 PHunters for Round Three are listed in the table below:

Observer NameTotal
1Pieter Cronje402
2Mark Liptrot 309
3Corrie du Toit279
4Corne Rautenbach232
5Nico Vromant195
6M. Booysen194
7Christopher Small 185
8Les Underhill143
9Lia Steen138
10Lance Robinson134
11Crystelle Wilson123
12Karis Daniel 120
13Pieter La Grange93
14Diana Russell 93
15Mary Lindsay85

For BirdPix, the bulk of the records came from South Africa (1,663 records), followed by Zambia (79) and Uganda (55). We also received records from Angola, Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia and Zimbabwe.

The bird species most recorded? The Southern Black-Flycatcher Melaenornis pammelaina (24 records) took first place with Egyptian Goose Alopochen aegyptiacus (20 records) and Village Weaver Ploceus cucullatus in third with 19 records. All in all 480 different bird species were phunted! This number reflects only the records that have been identified by the expert panel thus far, but our experts make quick work of getting identifications verified.

Southern Black-Flycatcher Melaenornis pammelaina – BirdPix record by Andre Harmse

Below is a table of the top ten birds recorded during the third round of Phunting.

Scientific NameCommon NameRecords Total
1Melaenornis pammelainaSouthern Black-Flycatcher24
2Alopochen aegyptiacusEgyptian Goose20
3Ploceus cucullatusVillage Weaver19
4Columba guineaSpeckled Pigeon18
5Passer melanurusCape Sparrow18
6Bostrychia hagedashHadeda Ibis18
7Streptopelia senegalensisLaughing Dove16
8Lonchura cucullatusBronze Mannikin15
9Motacilla capensisCape Wagtail15
10Pycnonotus tricolorDark-capped Bulbul15

In the OdonataMAP section of the Virtual Museum we received records from five countries: Cameroon, Namibia, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia. From the records that have been identified to date, 105 different species were recorded.

Russet Dropwing Trithemis pluvialis – OdonataMAP record by Hesmarie Els

The Red-veined Dropwing Trithemis arteriosa was most frequently recorded with 50 records, followed by the Broad Scarlet Crocothemis erythraea (45) and Tropical Bluetail Ischnura senegalensis (39). Corrie du Toit was the top OdonataMAPper, managing to submit 233 dragonfly and damselfly records for PHunting Round Three.

Below is a table of the top ten odonates recorded during the third round of Phunting.

Scientific NameCommon NameRecords Total
1Trithemis arteriosaRed-veined Dropwing50
2Crocothemis erythraeaBroad Scarlet45
3Ischnura senegalensisTropical Bluetail39
4Ceriagrion glabrumCommon Citril35
5Orthetrum capicolaCape Skimmer34
6Nesciothemis farinosaEastern Blacktail26
7Brachythemis leucostictaSouthern Banded Groundling24
8Orthetrum juliaJulia Skimmer23
9Sympetrum fonscolombiiRed-veined Darter or Nomad23
10Trithemis kirbyiOrange-winged Dropwing21

LepiMAPpers were also out in full force for the third round of photo hunting, snapping and mapping a total of 723 butterflies and moths. Phunting trophies from all over Africa were uploaded to the LepiMAP section of the Virtual Museum. For South Africa, most of the records came from KwaZulu-Natal Province (188), followed by the Western Cape (66) and the North West Province on 22 records.

Large Striped Swordtail Graphium antheus – LepiMAP record by Daryl de Beer

From the 723 records submitted, the expert panel has identified 221 different species thus far! The little African Grass Blue Zizeeria knysna knysna ended up being the most photogenic with 30 records. Next in line was the African Veined White Belenois gidica abyssinica (17 records) and tied for third was the White-barred Telchinia Telchinia encedon encedon and Large Striped Swordtail Graphium antheus both with 13 records. See the table below for the LepiMAP top ten for the third round of Phunting.

Scientific NameCommon NameRecords Total
1Zizeeria knysna knysnaAfrican grass blue30
2Belenois gidica abyssinicaAfrican veined white17
3Telchinia encedon encedonWhite-barred telchinia13
4Graphium antheus Large striped swordtail13
5Belenois creona severinaAfrican Caper White12
6Azanus moriqua Black-bordered Babul Blue11
7Bicyclus safitza safitzaBlack-haired Bush Brown11
8Azanus jesous Topaz Babul Blue10
9Lampides boeticus Pea Blue10
10Danaus chrysippus orientisAfrican Plain Tiger10

There are many other sections of the Virtual Museum and we encourage you to keep an eye out for these critters too. We are mapping everything from scorpions to frogs to mammals. So what are you waiting for? Grab your camera (or cellphone) and get snapping and mapping!

PHunting Round Four starts on Saturday 08 January 2022 🙂 Starting the New Year off with a biodiversity bang!