Birds of Fort Fordyce Reserve

Craig AJFK, and Hulley PE. 2020. The birds of Fort Fordyce Reserve, Eastern Cape. Biodiversity Observations 11.1:1-16

Biodiversity Observations is an open access electronic journal published by the Animal Demography Unit at the University of Cape Town. This HTML version of this manuscript is hosted by the Biodiversity and Development Institute. Further details for this manuscript can be found at the journal page, and the manuscript page, along with the original PDF.

The birds of Fort Fordyce Reserve, Eastern Cape

Adrian JFK Craig

Department of Zoology & Entomology, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa

Patrick E Hulley

Department of Zoology & Entomology, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa


Since 2007 we have carried out surveys of birds at Fort Fordyce, including mist-netting. To date, 175 species have been recorded, including 9 Red Data species, of which one is a breeding resident, and three others may be breeding in the reserve. There are 56 species typical of montane forest; most are present throughout the year. With > 500 birds ringed and 50 recaptures, the oldest records to date are 8 years for an olive thrush and a black-backed puffback.


Forest is a rare habitat in South Africa, covering < 1% of the land surface, and it is currently much fragmented. However, there are very few areas which were covered by extensive tracts of natural forest even before human-induced changes to the original vegetation distribution (Rutherford and Westfall 1986). Many small forest remnants, originally under the control of the Department of Forestry, have subsequently been transferred to state conservation departments.

Fort Fordyce (Figure 1) was previously a hilltop forestry station, with extensive plantations of alien pine and eucalypt trees, while indigenous forest persisted on the steeper slopes. In 1987 it became a nature reserve administered by the Cape Provincial Department of Nature Conservation, and removal of alien vegetation began. Most of the plantations have now been felled, but secondary infestations of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) cover significant areas, although there is also extensive regeneration of natural vegetation. This protected area covers 2155 hectares, and with the Mpofu Game Reserve (7500 hectares) in the adjacent valley, is currently managed by Eastern Cape Parks; these two reserves form part of the Amatola-Katberg Mountain Important Bird Area (BirdLife South Africa 2015).

Figure 1. Location of Fort Fordyce in South Africa

The plateau at Fort Fordyce (altitude 1400 m) has areas of open grassland where grazing mammals have been introduced (black wildebeest Connochaetes gnou, Burchell’s zebra Equus quagga burchellii, red hartebeest Alcelaphus buselaphus caama). Bushbuck (Tragelaphus sylvaticus) and blue duiker (Philantomba monticola) occur naturally in the forested areas; baboon (Papio ursinus) and vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) are present, but no samango monkeys (Cercopithecus albogularis) have been recorded. Caracal (Caracal caracal) is the largest resident predator. Annual rainfall averages 1125 mm (mean over 15 years); summer maximum temperatures range to 42°C while frost occurs regularly in winter, and snow has been recorded in some years.

Based on surveys of the avifauna since 2007 (Craig 2007, 2012) we have posed the following questions:

  1. Does this patch of Afromontane forest preserve a significant component of forest birds, particularly endemic species, and species of conservation concern?
  2. Are these birds resident throughout the year, or is there evidence for seasonal movements?


Since May 2007, we have visited Fort Fordyce on 47 occasions, mostly single day visits. On each occasion, at least two observers have followed a regular route within the forest and across the grassland area, recording all birds seen and heard. These data have been submitted to the Southern African Bird Atlas Project (SABAP2). We have also set approximately 100 m of mist nets along a track near the reserve office and chalets (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Mist net line at Fort Fordyce (Photo Magi Nams)

The vegetation here is regenerating scrub-forest, with a small patch of pine trees remaining to the east of the net line. All birds captured have been ringed with standard metal rings issued by SAFRING. Apart from our own data, there are 10 surveys by other observers submitted to SABAP2, and three checklists in the Birds in Reserves Project (BIRP). The reserve straddles two pentads (the 5’ x 5’ minute map units used for SABAP2), including the NW corner of pentad 3240_2630 and the NE sector of pentad 3240_2625 (SABAP2, accessed 13 December 2017). However, virtually all data collection has been within the map unit 3240_2625.

Prior to 2007, we visited the reserve on three occasions (September 1988, April 1989, August 1997) during student field trips lasting 3 days each. Birds were mist-netted, and species lists recorded for each visit; these data are discussed separately. Data are also available from the first bird atlas (SABAP1, Harrison et al. 1997), but the mapping unit at that time was a “quarter degree square” (15’ x 15’), which covers a larger area than the reserve and thus incorporated the valley with dry thornveld vegetation. This is evident from the species list, which includes many taxa which have not been recorded subsequently when surveys were restricted to the forest and grassland areas within the reserve.

Results and Discussion


The SABAP1 list for the quarter degree square (map code 3226CB) incorporating Fort Fordyce Reserve has 211 species, but as noted above some of these are clearly birds of the low thornveld areas at the base of the pass which leads up to the plateau. Nevertheless all 86 species noted by AJFKC and PEH in the years 1988-1997 are included in the SABAP1 tally. The current list for the pentad 3240_2625, based on SABAP2, our surveys and mist-netting records, and the few additional BIRP data, is 175 species (Appendix 1); 18 of these species were not recorded during SABAP1. Three species recorded in the forest/grassland habitats in the period 1988-1997 have not been reported in this sector since then: spotted eagle-owl (Bubo africanus), long-billed pipit (Anthus similis) and golden-breasted bunting (Emberiza flaviventris). Of these, only the owl may be present regularly, since with few overnight stays, nocturnal birds are certainly under-reported; the other two species are likely to be occasional vagrants. For comparison, in three KwaZulu-Natal Afromontane forest reserves, Symes et al. (2002) recorded a total of 136 species, with no more than 110 species at any one site. However, these surveys extended over only 2-4 years at their study sites.

Species of conservation concern

Table 1 lists those species recorded at Fort Fordyce, which feature in the most recent “Red Data Book” for southern Africa (Taylor et al. 2015). The frequency with which these species have been recorded (cf. Appendix 1) suggests that most are only occasional visitors to the reserve. The endangered Cape parrot (Poicephalus robustus) has roosted here occasionally, but the large flocks seen feeding on pecan nuts on farms in the valley at certain seasons fly east in the direction of the Hogsback forests each evening (pers. obs.). Only the Knysna woodpecker (Campethera notata) is a confirmed breeding resident; the African crowned eagle (Stephanoaetus coronatus) probably also nests within the protected area, and the lanner falcon (Falco biarmicus) and bush blackcap (Lioptilus nigricapillus) may do so. There are historical records of southern ground hornbill (Bucorvus leadbeateri) from this site, but none within the past 50 years.

Table 1. Conservation status of Red Data species at Fort Fordyce

Common nameScientific nameRed data statusStatus in reserve
Cape parrotPoicephalus robustusEndangeredOccasional visitor
blue craneAnthropoides paradiseusNear-threatenedOccasional visitor
Knysna woodpeckerCampethera notataNear-threatenedBreeding resident
striped flufftailSarothrura affinisVulnerableOccasional visitor
Verreaux’s eagleAquila verreauxiVulnerableOccasional visitor
African crowned eagleStephanoaetus coronatusVulnerableProbable breeding resident
secretarybirdSagittarius serpentariusVulnerableOccasional visitor
lanner falconFalco biarmicusVulnerablePossible breeding resident
bush blackcapLioptilus nigricapillusVulnerablePossible breeding resident

Forest birds

The forest bird species in Table 2 are based on Skead (1967), who listed 74 species which occur in forest in the Eastern Cape, including riverine forest. However, of the species on his list, some do not extend as far west as the Kei River (e.g. eastern bronze-naped pigeon Columba delegorguei) or are restricted to coastal forests (e.g. red-capped robin-chat Cossypha natalensis), but we have included Barratt’s warbler (Bradypterus barratti) which he described as found “in scrub adjacent to forests” (Skead 1967 p. 81).

Table 2: Eastern Cape forest birds found at Fort Fordyce 2007-2017. E = endemic to southern Africa

Common nameScientific nameStatus in reserve
long-crested eagleLophaetus occipitalisResident
African crowned eagleStephanoaetus coronatusResident
forest buzzardButeo trizonatusE Probable resident
rufous-breasted sparrowhawkAccipiter rufiventrisVisitor
African goshawkAccipiter tachiroResident
African harrier-hawkPolyboroides typusResident
red-necked spurfowlPternistis aferResident
buff-spotted flufftailSarothrura elegansVisitor
African olive pigeonColumba arquatrixResident
red-eyed doveStreptopelia semitorquataResident
tambourine doveTurtur tympanistriaProbable resident
lemon doveColumba larvataResident
Cape parrotPoicephalus robustusE Visitor
Knysna turacoTauraco corythaixResident
red-chested cuckooCuculus solitariusSummer migrant
black cuckooCuculus clamosusSummer migrant
emerald cuckooChrysococcyx cupreusSummer migrant
barn owlTyto albaVisitor?
African wood owlStrix woodfordiiProbable resident
Narina trogonApaloderma narinaResident
green wood-hoopoePhoeniculus purpureusProbable resident
crowned hornbillTockus alboterminatusResident
red-fronted tinkerbirdPogoniulus pusillusResident
scaly-throated honeyguideIndicator variegatusProbable resident
Knysna woodpeckerCampethera notataE Resident
olive woodpeckerDendropicos griseocephalusResident
grey cuckooshrikeCoracina caesiaResident
black-headed orioleOriolus larvatusResident
bush blackcapLioptilus nigricapillusE Possible resident
terrestrial brownbulPhyllastrephus terrestrisResident
sombre greenbulAndropadus importunusResident
olive thrushTurdus olivaceusResident
chorister robin-chatCossypha dichroaE Resident
brown scrub-robinCercotrichas signataE Probable resident
white-starred robinPogonocichla stellataProbable resident
bar-throated apalisApalis thoracicaResident
yellow-breasted apalisApalis flavidaResident
green-backed camaropteraCamaroptera brachyuraResident
Barratt’s warblerBradypterus barrattiE Resident
yellow-throated woodland warblerPhylloscopus ruficapillaResident
African dusky flycatcherMuscicapa adustaResident
Cape batisBatis capensisE Resident
blue-mantled crested-flycatcherTrochocercus cyanomelasResident
African paradise-flycatcherTerpsiphone viridisSummer migrant
mountain wagtailMotacilla claraProbable resident
southern boubouLaniarius ferrugineusE Resident
black-backed puffbackDryoscopus cublaResident
olive bush-shrikeChlorophoneus olivaceusResident
orange-breasted bush-shrikeChlorophoneus sulfureopectusVisitor
red-winged starlingOnychognathus morioResident
southern double-collared sunbirdCinnyris chalybeusE Resident
grey sunbirdCyanomitra veroxiiResident
collared sunbirdAnthodiaeta collarisResident
Cape white-eyeZosterops virensE Resident
dark-backed weaverPloceus bicolorResident
forest canaryCrithagra scotopsE Resident

Based on current distribution data in “Roberts VII” (Hockey et al. 2005), 66 species could occur in montane forests along the Amathole Mountain chain, and of this total, 56 have been recorded at Fort Fordyce to date. This is a significant proportion of the South African forest avifauna. Symes et al. (2002) found no significant seasonal variation in forest-specific or forest-endemic and near-endemic species during their surveys; 27 of their 33 “forest-specific” species were recorded at Fort Fordyce and none of these showed any seasonal pattern in occurrence.

Seasonal occurence

How effective are visits spread over different months in different years at detecting patterns of seasonal occurrence? This can best be assessed by examining the records of known migrants in our database. Whereas the jackal buzzard (Buteo rufofuscus) has been seen in every month of the year, the steppe buzzard (Buteo vulpinus) has been recorded only from October to February. Four cuckoo species (African emerald Chrysococcyx cupreus, black Cuculus clamosus, Klaas’s Chrysococcyx klaas, and red-chested cuckoo Cuculus solitarius) have all been recorded for each of the months October to February; only Klaas’s cuckoo has been recorded at other times (March and April), and this species is known to overwinter in small numbers. The black saw-wing (Psalidoprocne pristoptera) and white-rumped swift (Apus caffer) have both been recorded in every month from September to March, with no records from April to August. A similar pattern is found in the three swallow species (barn Hirundo rustica, greater striped Cecropis cucullata and lesser striped swallows Cecropis abyssinica), with no winter records for any of them. This suggests that our sampling should be adequate to detect presence/absence of most species. What can we deduce about the forest birds as listed in Table 2?

Apart from the cuckoos mentioned above, only one of these forest species, the African paradise flycatcher (Terpsiphone viridis) (Figure 3), is primarily migratory in our area, and the records seem to reflect this with no reports from May to August – whereas the blue-mantled crested-flycatcher (Trochocercus cyanomelas) has been seen in every month of the year. For some species, however, we currently have too few records to draw any conclusions; these are discussed briefly below.

Figure 3. Male African paradise flycatcher (Photo Magi Nams)

There are < 5 records for the rufous-breasted sparrowhawk (Accipiter rufiventris), buff-spotted flufftail (Sarothrura elegans), Cape parrot, barn owl (Tyto alba), African wood owl (Strix woodfordii), tambourine dove (Turtur tympanistria), green wood-hoopoe (Phoeniculus purpureus), scaly-throated honeyguide (Indicator variegatus), bush blackcap (Figure 4), brown scrub-robin (Cercotrichas signata), mountain wagtail (Motacilla clara) and orange-breasted bush-shrike (Telophorus sulfureopectus).

Figure 4. Bush blackcap (Photo Magi Nams)

Of these species, we would speculate that the African wood owl, scaly-throated honeyguide, bush blackcap, brown scrub-robin and mountain wagtail could be rare residents within the reserve; the others are probably occasional visitors, and may be more common in the valleys below. With both summer and winter records for the forest buzzard (Buteo trizonatus), African goshawk (Accipiter tachiro) and African harrier-hawk (Polyboroides typus), they could be rare residents or merely irregular visitors.

For most of the other species, we have at least 15 records, while the southern boubou (Laniarius ferrugineus) and sombre greenbul (Andropadus importunus) have been recorded on every visit. Vernon (1989) discussed forest birds in the East London region, and mentioned six species with regular altitudinal movements between inland forests and the coast: grey cuckooshrike (Coracina caesia), bush blackcap, Cape robin-chat (Cossypha caffra), white-starred robin (Pogonocichla stellata) (Figure 5), Barratt’s warbler and yellow-throated warbler (Setophaga dominica) (Figure 6).

Figure 5. Immature white-starred robin (Photo Magi Nams)
Figure 6. Yellow-throated warbler (Photo Magi Nams)

The question of altitudinal movements has been discussed in more detail elsewhere (Craig and Hulley in press); it will be summarised briefly here. There is a winter record of bush blackcaps from Grahamstown (Craig 1986), while Vernon (1989) noted that a high proportion of his observations of grey cuckooshrike, Cape robin-chat, Barratt’s warbler and yellow-throated warbler at the coast were from the months Apr-Sept. Thus it is surprising that at Fort Fordyce all our records of Barratt’s warbler are from this period (Apr-Sept), with no summer records to date. Vernon (1989), however, commented that in some years birds may not leave the montane forest, and for the white-starred robin, studies elsewhere have suggested that only a part of the population undertakes regular altitudinal movements (Oatley 1982, Dowsett 1985). At Fort Fordyce, we have recorded grey cuckooshrike, Cape robin-chat and yellow-throated warbler throughout the year, while for white-starred robin there are records for 10 months (Appendix 1). Chorister robin-chats (Cossypha dichroa) have been recorded in every month; Vernon (1989) categorised this species as resident, although Johnson and Maclean (1994) listed it among altitudinal migrants in KwaZulu-Natal. A chorister robin-chat ringed in July at Fort Fordyce was caught again in July the following year, confirming that some birds do stay through the winter.


During visits up to 1997, 65 birds of 21 species were ringed. Since 2007 we have ringed 510 birds of 56 species (Appendix 2), thus capturing 32% of the species recorded, and 59% of the forest specialists (as listed by Symes et al. 2002, Brown 2006). We have recaptured 50 individuals (almost 10% of the ringed birds) from 17 species, with the oldest records an olive thrush (Turdus olivaceus) and a black-backed puffback (Dryoscopus cubla), both eight years after ringing. A green-backed camaroptera (Camaroptera brachyura), yellow-throated warbler, southern double-collared sunbird (Cinnyris chalybeus) and Cape white-eye (Zosterops virens) have been recaptured after more than six years, and a white-starred robin after four years. Few birds have been handled more than twice (Table 3); apart from the white-starred robin, these are all species for which our observations indicate that some birds, if not the same individuals, are present throughout the year (cf. Appendix 1). It is interesting to compare our ringing results with those of other ringers operating in forest sites in South Africa.

Table 3: Ringed birds captured more than twice at Fort Fordyce

SpeciesDate ringedDates recaptured
black-backed puffbackSept 2007Apr 2008, Oct 2015
olive thrushDec 2014Oct 2015, Jul, Oct 2017
chorister robin-chatFeb 2015Oct, Nov 2015
white-starred robinNov 2010Oct 2011, Sept 2013, Oct 2014
green-backed camaropteraOct 2007Apr, Jun 2008, Apr 2010
green-backed camaropteraSept 2009Nov 2014, Nov 2015
Cape white-eyeSept 2007Apr 2010, Nov 2016
Cape white-eyeApr 2010Nov 2010, Oct 2011
Cape white-eyeFeb 2012May 2012, Oct 2014
yellow-throated warblerOct 2007Dec 2007, Dec 2008, Sept 2013
southern double-collared sunbirdSept 2007Oct 2011, Feb 2012
southern double-collared sunbirdMay 2011July 2015, July 2017

Also in Afromontane forest, Symes et al. (2002) ringed 403 birds at two inland forest reserves (Hlabeni and Ngele) in KwaZulu-Natal, capturing about 35% of all the species observed there, but > 50% of the forest-specific species. This paper provided no further details on the individual species ringed, nor information on recaptures. In a coastal forest reserve (Umdoni Park) in KwaZulu-Natal, Brown (2006) ringed 466 individual birds of 44 species, which comprised only 23% of the species recorded at this site, but again > 50% of the forest-specific species. Over a five-year period, Brown (2006) recaptured 8.6% of the birds ringed. His most-ringed species by far were bronze mannikin (Lonchura cucullata) and red-backed mannikin (Lonchura nigriceps) (neither of which occur at Fort Fordyce), followed by red-capped robin-chat and olive sunbird (Cynomitra olivacea) (both restricted to coastal forests in the Eastern Cape), brown scrub-robin and green-backed camaroptera.

Williams (2016) described an eleven-year ringing study in an Afromontane forest patch on the Drakensberg escarpment in Mpumalanga. At this site, 384 birds of 43 species were ringed, and 53 individuals of 10 species recaptured. The most frequently ringed species were Cape robin-chat, black-backed puffback, Knysna turaco (Tauraco corythaix), chorister robin-chat, Cape batis (Batis capensis), green-backed camaroptera, blue-mantled crested flycatcher and terrestrial brownbul (Phyllastrephus terrestris) (all > 20 individuals).

All of these species (except the blue-mantled crested flycatcher) have been captured at Fort Fordyce, and all were found to be present throughout the year. However, whereas Williams (2016) captured only 9 sunbirds of five species, at Fort Fordyce the southern double-collared sunbird was one of our most-ringed birds (> 40 individuals). We also caught far more sombre greenbuls than terrestrial brownbuls (see Appendix 2), the reverse of Williams (2016) capture rates; this could be influenced by net positioning at the two sites.


A significant proportion of the regional forest avifauna is found within the Fort Fordyce reserve, and some individuals of all species appear to be present throughout the year. Ringing to date has produced no evidence of movement between this protected area and other localities. While we currently lack good information on breeding status, and breeding success, of these forest species, it is clear that this reserve constitutes a valuable conservation area for forest birds in the Eastern Cape.


We are grateful to Eastern Cape Parks for permission to survey and ring birds at Fort Fordyce. The park managers have always been helpful, and interested in our findings. Travel costs have been covered by research grants from Rhodes University and the National Research Foundation. Many birdclub members, students, and other volunteers have assisted with the surveys and ringing, in particular Daniel Danckwerts, Mark Galpin, Mary Hulley, Isabel Micklem, the late John Moore, Lorraine Mullins, Carlota Fernandez Muniz, Gareth Nuttall-Smith, Diane Smith, Kate Webster, and Milena Wolmarans. Special thanks to Magi Nams for the use of her photographs, taken during two ringing sessions in 2015.


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Appendix 1: Observations (sight and sound) of birds at Fort Fordyce; own records and SABAP2 data

Common nameScientific nameRecordsPresentNot recorded
apalis, bar-throatedApalis thoracica481-12 
apalis, yellow-breastedApalis flavida211-3,5-124
barbet, black-collaredLybius torquatus3  
batis, CapeBatis capensis531-12 
batis, chinspotBatis molitor2  
bishop, yellowEuplectes capensis212,5-10,121,3,4,11
blackcap, bushLioptilus nigricapillus2  
bokmakierieTelophorus zeylonus5  
boubou, southernLaniarius ferrugineus591-12 
brownbul, terrestrialPhyllastrephus terrestris391-12 
bulbul, dark-cappedPycnonotus tricolor541-12 
bush-shrike, orange-breastedChlorophoneus sulphureopectus1  
bush-shrike, oliveChlorophoneus olivaceus321-12 
buzzard, forestButeo trizonatus6  
buzzard, jackalButeo rufofuscus281-12 
buzzard, steppeButeo vulpinus181,2,10-123-9
camaroptera, green-backedCamaroptera brachyura491-12 
canary, brimstoneCrithagra sulphuratus122,6,7,9-121,3-5,8
canary, CapeSerinus canicollis431,2,4-123
canary, forestCrithagra scotops501-12 
canary, yellow-frontedCrithagra mozambicus252-121
chat, familiarCercolmela familiaris3  
cisticola, grey-backedCisticola subruficapilla2  
cisticola, lazyCisticola aberrans411-12 
cisticola, Levaillant’sCisticola tinniens8  
cisticola, wailingCisticola lais122,4,7,9-121,3,5,6,8
cliff-chat, mockingThamnolaea cinnamomeiventris1  
cormorant, reedPhalacrocorax africanus2  
cormorant, white-breastedPhalacrocorax carbo1  
coucal, Burchell’sCentropus burchelli1  
crane, blueAnthropoides paradiseus3  
crested-flycatcher, blue-mantledTrochocercus cyanomelas271-12 
crombec, long-billedSylvietta rufescens1  
crow, CapeCorvus capensis541-12 
crow, PiedCorvus albus4  
cuckoo, African emeraldChrysococcyx cupreus111,2,10-123-9
cuckoo, blackCuculus clamosus171,2,10-123-9
cuckoo, diderickChrysococcyx caprius2  
cuckoo, Klaas’sChrysococcyx klaas161,3,4,10-122,5-9
cuckoo, red-chestedCuculus solitarius171,2,10-123-9
cuckoo-shrike, blackCampephaga flava2  
cuckoo-shrike, greyCoracina caesia221,2,4-123
dove, laughingStreptopelia senegalensis2  
dove, lemonAplopelia larvata131-12 
dove, red-eyedStreptopelia semitorquata331-12 
dove, rockColumba livia1  
dove, tambourineTurtur tympanistria4  
drongo, fork-tailedDicrurus adsimilis351-12 
duck, yellow-billedAnas undulata2  
eagle, African crownedStephanoaetus coronatus191,2,4-9,11,123,10
eagle, bootedAquila pennatus6  
eagle, long-crestedLophaetus occipitalis192-8,10-121,9
eagle, Verreaux’sAquila verreauxii2  
falcon, lannerFalco biarmicus3  
falcon, peregrineFalco peregrinus1  
firefinch, AfricanLagonosticta rubricata151-6,8-10,127,11
fiscal, commonLanius collaris372-121
flufftail, buff-spottedSarothrura elegans1  
flufftail, stripedSarothrura affinis3  
flycatcher, African duskyMuscicapa adusta381-4,7-125,6
flycatcher, fiscalSigelus silens1  
flycatcher, spottedMuscicapa striata2  
francolin, grey-wingedScleroptila afra2  
goose, EgyptianAlopochen aegyptiacus2  
goshawk, AfricanAccipiter tachiro8  
goshawk, gabarMelierax gabar2  
goshawk, southern pale chantingMelierax canorus1  
grassbird, CapeSphenoeacus afer132,3,5,8-10,121,4,6,7,11
greenbul, sombreAndropadus importunus591-12 
guineafowl, helmetedNumida meleagris3  
hamerkopScopus umbretta1  
harrier, blackCircus maurus1  
harrier-hawk, AfricanPolyboroides typus121,2,4,8,9,123,5-7,10,12
heron, black-headedArdea melanocephala2  
heron, greyArdea cinerea1  
honeybird, brown-backedProdotiscus regulus1  
honeyguide, greaterIndicator indicator1  
honeyguide, lesserIndicator minor5  
honeyguide, scaly-throatedIndicator variegatus1  
hoopoe, AfricanUpupa africana3  
hornbill, crownedTockus alboterminatus163-111,2,12
house-martin, commonDelichon urbicum2  
ibis, African sacredThreskiornis aethiopicus1  
ibis, hadedaBostrychia hagedash381-5,7-126
indigobird, duskyVidua funerea2  
kestrel, rockFalco rupicolus1  
kingfisher, brown-hoodedHalcyon albiventris1  
kite, black-shoulderedElanus caeruleus6  
kite, yellow-billedMilvus aegyptius1  
lapwing, black-wingedVanellus melanopterus1  
lapwing, blacksmithVanellus armatus1  
lapwing, crownedVanellus coronatus1  
longclaw, CapeMacronyx capensis8  
martin, rockHirundo fuligula122,6,9-121,3-5,7,8
moorhen, commonGallinula chloropus2  
mousebird, red-facedUrocolius indicus7  
mousebird, speckledColius striatus321-12 
neddickyCisticola fulvicapilla161-3,6-124,5
nightjar, fiery-neckedCaprimulgus rufigena1  
olive-pigeon, AfricanColumba arquatrix321-12 
oriole, black-headedOriolus larvatus511-12 
owl, barnTyto alba1  
paradise-flycatcher, AfricanTerpsiphone viridis131,4,9-122,3,5-8
parrot, CapePoicephalus robustus1  
petronia, yellow-throatedPetronia superciliaris2  
pigeon, speckledColumba guinea4  
pipit, AfricanAnthus cinnamomeus10  
pipit, plain-backedAnthus leucophrys2  
prinia, KarooPrinia maculosa301-12 
prinia, tawny-flankedPrinia subflava5  
puffback, black-backedDryoscopus cubla551-12 
quail, commonCoturnix coturnix2  
raven, white-neckedCorvus albicollis191-5,7-126
robin, white-starredPogonocichla stellata213-121,2
robin-chat, CapeCossypha caffra481-12 
robin-chat, choristerCossypha dichroa401-12 
rock-thrush, CapeMonticola rupestris1  
saw-wing, blackPsalidoprocne holomelaena181-3,9-124-8
scrub-robin, brownCercotrichas signata2  
scrub-robin, white-browedCercotrichas leucophrys2  
secretarybirdSagittarius serpentarius4  
seedeater, streaky-headedCrithagra gularis5  
shrike, red-backedLanius collurio3  
sparrowhawk, rufous-breastedAccipiter rufiventris1  
spurfowl, red-neckedPternistis afer401-12 
starling, Cape glossyLamprotornis nitens124,7,8,11,121-3,5,6,9,10
starling, commonSturnus vulgaris2  
starling, piedLamprotornis bicolor1  
starling, red-wingedOnychognathus morio551-12 
stonechat, AfricanSaxicola torquatus322-121
stork, whiteCiconia ciconia1  
sunbird, amethystChalcomitra amethystina311-5,7-126
sunbird, collaredHedydipna collaris311-12 
sunbird, greater double-collaredCinnyris afer301-12 
sunbird, greyCyanomitra veroxii171,5,7-122-4,6
sunbird, malachiteNectarinia famosa6  
sunbird, southern double-collaredCinnyris chalybeus451-12 
swallow, barnHirundo rustica131-3,10-124-9
swallow, greater stripedHirundo cucullata151-4,9,11,125-8,10
swallow, lesser stripedHirundo abyssinica241-3,9-124-8
swallow, white-throatedHirundo albigularis6  
swift, African blackApus barbatus132,3,7,9-121,4-6,8
swift, alpineTachymarptis melba8  
swift, horusApus horus1  
swift, littleApus affinis3  
swift, white-rumpedApus caffer181-3,9-124-8
tchagra, southernTchagra tchagra132,3,5-121,4
thick-knee, spottedBurhinus capensis4  
thrush, oliveTurdus olivaceus391-12 
tinkerbird, red-frontedPogoniulus pusillus321-12 
tit, southern blackParus niger171-3,5-114,12
trogon, NarinaApaloderma narina136,7,9-121-5,8
turaco, KnysnaTauraco corythaix461-12 
Turtle-dove, CapeStreptopelia capicola301-12 
wagtail, CapeMotacilla capensis412-121
wagtail, mountainMotacilla clara2  
warbler, Barratt’sBradypterus barratti204-101-3,11,12
warbler, willowPhylloscopus trochilus3  
waxbill, commonEstrilda astrild9  
waxbill, sweeCoccopygia melanotis191-4,6,9-125,7,8
weaver, CapePloceus capensis4  
weaver, dark-backedPloceus bicolor351-12 
weaver, spectacledPloceus ocularis1  
weaver, thick-billedAmblyospiza albifrons2  
weaver, villagePloceus cucullatus1  
white-eye, CapeZosterops virens561-12 
whydah, pin-tailedVidua macroura3  
widowbird, red-collaredEuplectes ardens1  
wood-dove, emerald-spottedTurtur chalcospilos7  
wood-hoopoe, greenPhoeniculus purpureus3  
wood-owl, AfricanStrix woodfordii3  
warbler, yellow-throatedPhylloscopus ruficapilla322-121
woodpecker, cardinalDectropicos fuscescens1  
woodpecker, KnysnaCampethera notata29  
woodpecker, oliveDendropicos griseocephalus251-10,1211

Appendix 2: Records of birds ringed at Fort Fordyce

Common name1988-19972007-2017TotalRecapturessince ringing
apalis, bar-throatedNA99NA 
batis, Cape31417NA 
bishop, yellow53742523 months
blackcap, bushNA11NA 
boubou, southern3111413 months
brownbul, terrestrialNA33133 months
bulbul, dark-cappedNA44NA 
bunting, golden-breasted1NA1NA 
bush-shrike, oliveNA33NA 
camaroptera, green-backed11617374 months
canary, brimstone213NA 
canary, forest41620116 months
canary, yellow-fronted123NA 
cisticola, lazy18911 month
cuckoo, blackNA11NA 
cuckoo, diderickNA11NA 
cuckoo, red-chestedNA44NA 
cuckoo, Klaas’NA11NA 
dove, lemonNA44NA 
drongo, fork-tailedNA11NA 
firefinch, African415NA 
fiscal, common112NA 
flycatcher, African dusky189114 months
goshawk, AfricanNA22NA 
greenbul, sombre23335414 months
honeyguide, lesserNA11NA 
mousebird, speckled314NA 
oriole, black-headed3NA3NA 
paradise-flycatcher, AfricanNA11NA 
prinia, KarooNA22NA 
puffback, black-backedNA44197 months
robin, white-starredNA88248 months
robin-chat, Cape11213525 months
robin-chat, choristerNA1919312 months
seedeater, streaky-headedNA22NA 
starling, red-wingedNA44NA 
stonechat, African145NA 
sunbird, amethyst1NA1NA 
sunbird, collaredNA66NA 
sunbird, greater double-collared279323 months
sunbird, greyNA33NA 
sunbird, malachiteNA11NA 
sunbird, southern double-collared44448374 months
swallow, lesser stripedNA11NA 
thrush, olive52126395 months
turaco, KnysnaNA11NA 
wagtail, CapeNA11NA 
wagtail, mountainNA11NA 
warbler, Barratt’sNA22NA 
waxbill, sweeNA33NA 
weaver, dark-backedNA22NA 
white-eye, Cape161731891579 months
warbler, yellow-throatedNA55171 months
woodpecker, KnysnaNA33NA 
woodpecker, oliveNA11NA