View the above photo record (by Michael McSweeney) in FrogMAP here.
Find the Western Leopard Toad in the FBIS database (Freshwater Biodiversity Information System) here.
WESTERN LEOPARD TOAD – Sclerophrys pantherina
S. pantherina was formerly regarded as an allopatric population of S. pardalis, separated from the latter by a distance of more than 300 km. Poynton and Lambiris (1998) raised S. pantherina to the status of a full species on the basis of colouration, markings and morphological differences between the two populations. Furthermore, Eick et al. (2001) found greater genetic divergence between S. pantherina from the Western Cape and S. pardalis from the Eastern Cape than within either area, and agreed that S. pantherina is specifically distinct from S. pardalis. However, Cunningham and Cherry (2000) found only 0.5% divergence between the populations and felt that this was insufficient to warrant full species status for the Western Cape population.
While the advertisement call of S. pardalis (in the Eastern Cape) has been described (Passmore 1977b), an adequate comparison of the calls of S. pardalis and S. pantherina has not been published (Poynton and Lambiris 1998). Thus the taxonomic status of the two populations has not been fully resolved.
S. pantherina attains a length of about 140 mm. The beautiful dorsal pattern of chocolate-brown patches on a bright yellow background, with a yellow vertebral stripe, distinguishes this species from the partially sympatric S. capensis that has generally dull brown dorsal markings, and Vandijkophrynus angusticeps that, in this area, has a greyish dorsal surface covered in dark brown blotches, and yellow colouring on the upper surfaces of its feet. The ventrum of S. pantherina is granular and cream-coloured, with a darkish throat in males.
The advertisement call, a deep, pulsed snore that continues for about a second and is repeated every three to four seconds, easily distinguishes S. pantherina from all other sympatric toad species.
S. pantherina is mainly associated with sandy coastal lowlands but, in places, can also be found in valleys and on the lower mountain slopes and hills near the coast. Although it seems to spend most of its time away from water, this toad is always found in the general vicinity of wetland habitats such as rivers, coastal lakes, vleis and pans.
It inhabits the Fynbos and Thicket biomes where it is found in the following vegetation types: Mountain Fynbos, Laterite Fynbos, Limestone Fynbos, Sand Plain Fynbos and Dune Thicket. However, the species is not restricted to pristine natural habitats and is often found in modified habitats such as farmlands, urban open spaces and suburban gardens. Breeding has also been recorded in wetlands where some degree of pollution and eutrophication is evident.
This species generally breeds in permanent water bodies but also in seasonal wetlands that retain their water well into the summer months. Breeding habitat includes coastal lakes, vleis, pans, dams, ponds and sluggish, meandering rivers that have stretches of relatively deep, still water. Typical breeding sites have standing open water >50 cm deep, with scattered patches of aquatic plants and beds of emergent vegetation such as bulrushes Typha capensis.
S. pantherina is an explosive breeder with a short, defined breeding season (Cherry 1992). Breeding usually takes place during August but has also been recorded at the end of July and in September. At the commencement of the breeding season, large numbers of adults appear and converge on selected breeding sites, hence the old popular name, “August frog”. For example, after dark on 23 July 1978, 66 adults were counted within c.20 min on a 3-km stretch of road near Noordhoek on the Cape Peninsula.
At prime breeding sites, advertisement calls of males can be heard in choruses of up to c.30 individuals, but in urban environments far fewer individuals are usually heard. Calling is most intense at night but is sometimes heard during the day. Males call from stands of emergent vegetation (e.g. bulrushes), but at night, areas of open water are also utilized. The males have a habit of calling from a floating position with limbs outstretched. Amplexing pairs tend to utilize areas of open water for spawning (Cherry 1992).
The females deposit thousands of eggs in gelatinous strings. On one occasion a pair was reported to have produced 24 476 eggs (Rose 1929). Metamorphosis is fairly slow, taking >10 weeks. The relatively small, dark, benthic tadpoles develop into tiny 11-mm long toadlets that leave the water in October–December in their thousands. Relatively few of the offspring develop into adults: most fall victim to a variety of predators (including their own kind) and other hazards.
Status and Conservation
Status: Endangered (EN) Criteria: B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(ii,iii,iv,v)
There appears to be no obvious decline in the extent of occurrence of S. pantherina. However, urban development has resulted in permanent loss of habitat and the fragmentation of populations, especially on the Cape Peninsula and Cape Flats. In other areas, habitat degradation has affected habitat quality and led to a decline in population numbers.
Although this toad occurs in some of the protected nature areas within its range, these generally lack suitable breeding habitat. In fact, most of the protected areas in the southwestern Western Cape Province are located in montane areas, while probably >80% of S. pantherina breeding habitat is situated lower down in unprotected areas. Zandvlei Nature Reserve (including the adjoining Westlake Wetland Conservation Area) is one protected area with good breeding habitat. Other statutory conservation areas that provide breeding habitat include Rondevlei and Zeekoevlei nature reserves and Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve (northern limits), but the quality of this habitat is unknown.
In the municipal areas of the Cape Peninsula and Cape Flats, S. pantherina is known to breed in certain public open space and green-belt areas and is often encountered in surrounding gardens. These are important sanctuaries, but with increasing development, road traffic and associated threats, the survival of local populations could be threatened.
The recognition of the species status of S. pantherina has resulted in its being classified Endangered (Harrison et al. 2001). This is based on an extent of occurrence <5000 km2, an area of occupancy <500 km2, a severely fragmented habitat, continuing decline in the extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, extent and quality of habitat and the number of locations/subpopulations and mature individuals. The species is legally protected by the Nature Conservation Ordinance 19 of 1974, but is not listed by CITES.
S. pantherina is endemic to the winter-rainfall region of the Western Cape. It has a restricted distribution range that spans a distance of about 140 km, from the Cape Peninsula (3318CD, 3418AB) in the west, eastward to beyond Gansbaai in the Pearly Beach area (3419DA). The species has a distinctly coastal distribution and is generally associated with low-lying areas within about 10 km of the sea. Its distribution correlates with large wetland areas, including rivers, and an annual rainfall of ≥600 mm.
The earliest distribution records of S. pantherina were obtained from the Cape Peninsula and adjoining southwestern part of the Cape Flats (3318CD, 3418AB, BA). This area has also produced the most distribution records, including the following localities: Observatory, Valkenberg, Hout Bay, Noordhoek, Sun Valley, Fish Hoek, Clovelly, Kalk Bay, Kommetjie, Glencairn, the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve (northern limits), Scarborough, Constantia, Bergvliet, Tokai, Diep River, Kirstenhof, Lakeside, Rondevlei, Zeekoevlei, Southfield, Ottery, Philippi, Strandfontein and some neighbouring areas. Although Poynton (1964) recorded S. pantherina occurring on the Cape Flats in grid cell 3318DC, no further records are known from this area. The mapping of this grid cell represents Poynton’s interpretation of South African Museum specimens from the “Cape Flats”. The species is more likely to have been recorded from the Cape Flats area immediately to the south, situated in grid cell 3418BA where there are known former and current localities.
In the coastal region to the southeast, S. pantherina has been recorded from Pringle Bay and Betty’s Bay (3418BD), Kleinmond (3419AC), Hermanus and Stanford (3419AD), Gansbaai and Uilenkraalsmond (3419CB), and the Pearly Beach area (3419DA).
In summary, S. pantherina has been recorded from eight quarter-degree grid cells. Since 1995, it has been found in six of these cells of which 3419CB represents a new record. There are no recent records for cells 3318CD and 3419AC.
Virtual Museum (FrogMAP > Search VM > By Scientific or Common Name)
More common names: Panther Toad, August Frog, Leopard Toad (Alternative English Names); Westelike Luiperdskurwepadda (Afrikaans)
Recommended citation format for this species text:
de Villiers AL, Tippett RM. Western Leopard Toad Sclerophrys pantherina. BDI, Cape Town.
Available online at http://thebdi.org/2022/01/17/western-leopard-toad-sclerophrys-pantherina/
Recommended citation format:
This species text has been updated and expanded from the text in the
2004 frog atlas. The reference to the text and the book are as follows:
de Villiers AL 2004 Sclerophrys pantherina Western Leopard Toad. In Minter LR
et al 2004.
Minter LR, Burger M, Harrison JA, Braack HH, Bishop PJ, Kloepfer D (eds)
2004. Atlas and Red Data Book of the Frogs of South Africa, Lesotho and
Swaziland. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, and Avian Demography
Unit, Cape Town.